Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by the deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT), which performs the second enzymatic step in the conversion of galactose to glucose-1-phosphate. As a result of the enzyme deficiency, excess galactose is excreted in the urine and the substrate for GALT, galactose-1-phosphate, accumulates throughout the body. Manifestations of the disease appear within days of the initiation of milk feedings, and include vomiting, jaundice and failure to thrive. If left untreated for a prolonged period of time, patients will develop hepatomegaly, cataracts and intellectual disability. Speech delay and premature ovarian failure are also observed in many galactosemia patients, even in those who are diagnosed early and put on treatment. Galactosemia is typically detected very early because of newborn screening programs, which measure GALT enzyme activity in dried blood spots. Mutations in the GALT gene are responsible for the classic form of galactosemia (G/G). This sequencing analysis can help identify the disease causing mutations in patients.